• potential for passive design strategies to improve comfort in outdoor environments
    • improved ventilation, shading, and misting in the summer and improved solar access and wind protection during the winter.
    • baseline comfort
    • demonstrate the value of intentional design to improve outdoor comfort
    • improvements in human comfort, wellbeing, and efficient use of energy in outdoor spaces
    • We also graphed the potential of each city to improve the percentage of hours within the comfortable UTCI range by taking the difference in percentage points between improved scenarios and control. Finally, we averaged out the comfort percentages for cities in the same climate zone and calculated the difference between the baseline and best-case scenarios (Figures 2-3), which shows the potential for improvement through design intervention


Orsini, Federico. 2014. “I-COOL. Proposal for an Evaluation Model of the Thermal Comfort in Urban Open Spaces.”
“A Human-Centered Approach to Enhance Urban Resilience, Implications and Application to Improve Outdoor Comfort in Dense Urban Spaces.” n.d.
Walls, Wendy, Nicki Parker, and Jillian Walliss. n.d. “Designing with Thermal Comfort Indices in Outdoor Sites,” 12.
Kastner, Patrick, and Timur Dogan. n.d. “Towards High-Resolution Annual Outdoor Thermal Comfort Mapping In Urban Design,” 8.
Emmanuel, Rohinton. n.d. “Linking the ‘in’ and ‘out:’ New Comfort Goals for the Rapidly Urbanising Equatorial Tropical Megacities in a Changing Climate,” 15.
Hatefnia, Navid, Marjan Ghobad, and Paul Carew. n.d. “Data-Driven Design Based on the Outdoor Thermal Comfort,” 8.


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