definition

Topology is the mathematical study of the properties that are preserved through deformations, twistings, and stretchings of objects. Tearing, however, is not allowed.

fr

Topologie

A topological description of a pattern is concerned not with exact values of distances and angles but rather with the number of connections.

A topological description of a pattern is concerned not with exact values of distances and angles but rather with the number of connections.

A. L. Loeb